soudakki:

raptortooth:

mybine:

lumos5001:

amazingpeetaisnotonfire:

sluttynuggets:

aphtaiwan:

johnhamishmorstan:

I don’t understand american school years what the fuck is a freshman or a sophomore why do you have these words instead of the numbers

what why would you use numbers

so IT FUCKING MAKES SENSE WHAT THE HELL IS A SOFT MOORE OR A FRESH MAN WHY ARE THE MEN FRESH

image

America makes no sense, as usual.

bless the person that actually made the chart

laughter from France

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France what the fuck

France always had was weird with counting xD

Oh, one of the mysteries of my life was just lifted. lol I always thought that “freshman” was a pet name for the youngest generations in school… Maybe bc in Poland’s high schools the youngest were always called “cats”…

It’s not weird counting. It’s fusinioning. We count backwards, that’s true but that doesn’t explain why we have two naming systems. 

At the beginning ( after Jules Ferry’s laws of the early 1880’s) when our school system was even more elitist than nowadays, there used to be two kind of school: schools for the common people let’s say, that ended around 14 (a bit before, a bit after, depending of the time), and a school for rich people where you could learn latin or greec, enter if you had money, and that took you to university.

The two systems were separated. A wealthy child couldn’t go to the common people’s school, and if you had no money, even if you were brilliant, (that’s one of the reason French national tests at that time got better results than nowadays, because only 10% of the students, from the wealthier families, took them. Not nearly 100% of them like today), you could get extra classes in the primaire supérieur, and if you were very lucky and very brilliant go to the lycée and to university.

Anyway, the school for wealthy people was called the lycée even though it was composed of primary school, junior high, and high school. You found the unity in the name of the classes because  each one got a number. From 11th to Terminale. Primary school and junior high were nicknamed “les petites classes du lycée”.

This system doesn’t exist anymore because of the reforms voted after WW2 - one of the main in 1975 with the creation of the “collège unique” (one junior high for everyone) - created a unique organisation of scolarity for everyone. The class of the collège and the lycée (junior high and high school) kept their elitist numbers, but primary schools kept the names they had before the fusion for the small classes: cours préparatoire, cours élémentaire and cours moyen.

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posted il y a 1 mois (® vexingholmes)

C’est un trou de verdure où chante une rivière,

Accrochant follement aux herbes des haillons
D’argent ; où le soleil, de la montagne fière,
Luit : c’est un petit val qui mousse de rayons.

Un soldat jeune, bouche ouverte, tête nue,
Et la nuque baignant dans le frais cresson bleu,
Dort ; il est étendu dans l’herbe, sous la nue,
Pâle dans son lit vert où la lumière pleut.

Les pieds dans les glaïeuls, il dort. Souriant comme
Sourirait un enfant malade, il fait un somme :
Nature, berce-le chaudement : il a froid.

Les parfums ne font pas frissonner sa narine ;
Il dort dans le soleil, la main sur sa poitrine,
Tranquille. Il a deux trous rouges au côté droit.

Arthur Rimbaud

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posted il y a 1 mois

For Awesomefrench (et parce qu’au final, j’aime beaucoup la première photo même si c’est un fail)

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Marie Curie's century-old radioactive notebook still requires lead box

lostsplendor:

"Marie Curie made some of the most significant contributions to science in the 20th century. And as most people already know, she did so at a great cost to her own health. What most people probably don’t know, however, is that the radiation levels she was exposed to were so powerful that her notebooks must now be kept in lead-lined boxes." - Adam Clark Estes, Gizmodo

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posted il y a 1 mois (® lostsplendor)
fuckyeahhistorycrushes:

Eugene Bullard, the first African American combat pilot. Born in Georgia, Bullard left for Europe in his teens (he later claimed to have seen his father narrowly escape lynching). He worked as a boxer in Paris, then joined the French Army during World War I. Bullard was severely wounded at Verdun, and after he recovered he joined the French Air Service. Once the United States joined the war, Americans fighting for France were mostly absorbed into the American forces, but because the Army Air Corps was whites only, Bullard remained in the French army. After the war, Bullard remained in France until the German invasion in the Second World War, when he and his daughters fled Paris. Bullard took part in the defense of Orleans but was wounded and escaped over the border into Spain, and from there to New York. 
In 1949, Bullard was attending a concert in Harlem that was organized by entertainer and activist Paul Robeson to benefit the Civil Rights Congress. In what was later known as the Peekskill Riots, performers and attendees of the concert, Bullard among them, were savagely beaten by a mob that included members of the local and state police. Bullard’s beating was captured on film, but none of his attackers were ever prosecuted.
Bullard died in 1961 of stomach cancer in relative anonymity, and was buried with full military honors in the French War Veteran’s section of Flushing Cemetery. He had been a recipient of 15 decorations from the government of France, including being made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor, France’s highest award.

fuckyeahhistorycrushes:

Eugene Bullard, the first African American combat pilot. Born in Georgia, Bullard left for Europe in his teens (he later claimed to have seen his father narrowly escape lynching). He worked as a boxer in Paris, then joined the French Army during World War I. Bullard was severely wounded at Verdun, and after he recovered he joined the French Air Service. Once the United States joined the war, Americans fighting for France were mostly absorbed into the American forces, but because the Army Air Corps was whites only, Bullard remained in the French army. After the war, Bullard remained in France until the German invasion in the Second World War, when he and his daughters fled Paris. Bullard took part in the defense of Orleans but was wounded and escaped over the border into Spain, and from there to New York. 

In 1949, Bullard was attending a concert in Harlem that was organized by entertainer and activist Paul Robeson to benefit the Civil Rights Congress. In what was later known as the Peekskill Riots, performers and attendees of the concert, Bullard among them, were savagely beaten by a mob that included members of the local and state police. Bullard’s beating was captured on film, but none of his attackers were ever prosecuted.

Bullard died in 1961 of stomach cancer in relative anonymity, and was buried with full military honors in the French War Veteran’s section of Flushing Cemetery. He had been a recipient of 15 decorations from the government of France, including being made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor, France’s highest award.

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posted il y a 1 mois (® fuckyeahhistorycrushes)
beatonna:

erikkwakkel:

Doodle by bored medieval school boy
This 15th-century doodle is found in the lower margin of a manuscript containing Juvenal’s Satires. This classical text was a popular device to teach young students - kids - morals. The medieval teacher Alexander Nequam stated: “Let the student read the satirists […] so that he may learn even in his younger days that vices are to be shunned” (quote here). Spoken like a true optimist, because this page shows what young school boys like to do with rules: disobey them. And so in stead of studying the student who used this book drew a funny doodle in the lower margin: a figure with a flower in one hand and what appears to be a pipe in the other. Could it be his teacher? Doodles are of all ages but those produced by bored school kids are the most entertaining.
Pic: Carpentras, Bibliothèque municipale, MS 368 (here). Here is another example of school kids doodling.

Such a great tumblr, follow and you are bound to enjoy these discoveries

beatonna:

erikkwakkel:

Doodle by bored medieval school boy

This 15th-century doodle is found in the lower margin of a manuscript containing Juvenal’s Satires. This classical text was a popular device to teach young students - kids - morals. The medieval teacher Alexander Nequam stated: “Let the student read the satirists […] so that he may learn even in his younger days that vices are to be shunned” (quote here). Spoken like a true optimist, because this page shows what young school boys like to do with rules: disobey them. And so in stead of studying the student who used this book drew a funny doodle in the lower margin: a figure with a flower in one hand and what appears to be a pipe in the other. Could it be his teacher? Doodles are of all ages but those produced by bored school kids are the most entertaining.

Pic: Carpentras, Bibliothèque municipale, MS 368 (here). Here is another example of school kids doodling.

Such a great tumblr, follow and you are bound to enjoy these discoveries

11 142 notes
posted il y a 1 mois (® erikkwakkel)
'Here lies a good Frenchman': A victim of 6 February 1934
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posted il y a 1 mois

Nuit du 4 août, haut-relief en bronze de Léopold Morice, Monument à la République, Place de la République, Paris, 1883

During the night of the 4th of August 1789, the deputies of the Assemblée Constituante put an end to privilèges and feodalism.
After the storm of the Bastille, a “Great Fear” spread in the country. Farmers feared the reaction of the nobility and rumors of nobles hiding crops and getting ready to attack appeared. In many regions, farmers armed themselves and attacked nobles, to their belongings, or to their archives (burning the archives meant nobles couldn’t prove their claim on their lands anymore and couldn’t impose taxes on the population).
The situation worried the deputies in Versailles. As a response, during the night of the 4th of August, some deputies (the comte d’Aiguillon, the vicomte de Noailles for example) proposed the supression of feodal rights and more generally of the privilèges.
At that time, privilège was synonym of liberty. Privilège meant ‘special law’ (like being able to create a milicia or pay less taxes). Each province had privilèges, many towns did as well - it didn’t only concern the nobility and the clergy, who were exempted from paying taxes. The whole system of privilège disappeared that night
The feodal rights didn’t fully followed. Some were suppressed like the tithe or the corvée. But taxes like the champart or the cens were kept, and farmers had to offer a compensation to be exempted.

Nuit du 4 août, haut-relief en bronze de Léopold Morice, Monument à la République, Place de la République, Paris, 1883

During the night of the 4th of August 1789, the deputies of the Assemblée Constituante put an end to privilèges and feodalism.

After the storm of the Bastille, a “Great Fear” spread in the country. Farmers feared the reaction of the nobility and rumors of nobles hiding crops and getting ready to attack appeared. In many regions, farmers armed themselves and attacked nobles, to their belongings, or to their archives (burning the archives meant nobles couldn’t prove their claim on their lands anymore and couldn’t impose taxes on the population).

The situation worried the deputies in Versailles. As a response, during the night of the 4th of August, some deputies (the comte d’Aiguillon, the vicomte de Noailles for example) proposed the supression of feodal rights and more generally of the privilèges.

At that time, privilège was synonym of liberty. Privilège meant ‘special law’ (like being able to create a milicia or pay less taxes). Each province had privilèges, many towns did as well - it didn’t only concern the nobility and the clergy, who were exempted from paying taxes. The whole system of privilège disappeared that night

The feodal rights didn’t fully followed. Some were suppressed like the tithe or the corvée. But taxes like the champart or the cens were kept, and farmers had to offer a compensation to be exempted.

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posted il y a 1 mois

Sac à procès/ Trial bags
© Archives départementales des Alpes-Maritimes

These bags were used by lawyers during the Ancien Régime to gather the papers concerning the procedure they took care of and were identified by a label sewn on them. They usually were made of hemp, commonly cultivated at that time. The expressions “L’affaire est dans le sac”  (it’s in the bag ) or “avoir plus d’un tour dans son sac” (to have have more than one trick up your sleeve ) come from the use of  such bags.

Sac à procès/ Trial bags

© Archives départementales des Alpes-Maritimes

These bags were used by lawyers during the Ancien Régime to gather the papers concerning the procedure they took care of and were identified by a label sewn on them. They usually were made of hemp, commonly cultivated at that time. The expressions “L’affaire est dans le sac”  (it’s in the bag ) or “avoir plus d’un tour dans son sac” (to have have more than one trick up your sleeve ) come from the use of  such bags.

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French newspaper on the 2nd of August 1914, after the mobilisation (original article here)

L’Action Française

«Nous ne serons pas seuls comme en 1870. L’agression est certaine. Nous nous ruons à la défense de nos champs, de nos foyers, de nos libertés, de notre rang dans le monde et de notre honneur, au secours de nos frères de Metz et Strasbourg ployés depuis quarante-trois interminables années sous le joug du plus lourd et du plus arrogant des vainqueurs. Le champion d’une civilisation sans rivale est en armes. Il saura disputer l’univers à la barbarie.»

L’Aurore

«Le sort en est jeté. La France pacifique n’a pas pu maintenir la paix. […] Il y a entre l’Allemagne et nous un monstrueux différend qui surgit aujourd’hui formidable : l’Alsace-Lorraine ! Nos frères opprimés, séparés de nous depuis 1870. Voulons-nous les revoir ? Voulons-nous leur rendre la liberté ? Les ramener au sein de la grande famille française ? Alors ne discutons plus. Ne cherchons plus qui a la responsabilité du conflit. La guerre est déchainée ; ce n’est pas de notre faute ; notre conscience est libérée. “Pour l’Alsace-Lorraine !” voilà notre mot de passe et pour la France. N’ayons plus d’autre pensée que la lutte acharnée qui commence. Plus tard nous nous retrouverons.»

L’Humanité

«Ils nous le tuent à l’heure terrible où plus que jamais, la France avait besoin de lui», écrit le député socialiste Marcel Sembat, qui deviendra ministre des Travaux publics.

«Jaurès meurt, et la mobilisation est décrétée ! Jaurès s’en va; la guerre arrive. Il aurait refusé de croire que la guerre fût inévitable, même après la mobilisation décrétée ; et notre devoir est de continuer sa tâche en nous entêtant furieusement à lutter pour la paix.[…] Ce coup de pistolet-là, il frappe à la tête, il frappe au cœur, il frappe le Parti, il frappe la République : mais surtout il frappe la France. On s’en aperçoit déjà ! On en convient déjà, parce qu’il est mort. Mais j’ai bien peur que bientôt on n’ait lieu de s’en apercevoir davantage. Pour nous, aux heures difficiles, voici notre recette : nous nous demanderons : “Qu’en penserait Jaurès ?”»

L’Écho de Paris

«Tout le monde se prépare avec un calme remarquable à faire son devoir. Ce calme il est tracé pour tous ceux qui sont des jeunes hommes, pour tous ceux qui sont dans la pleine force de l’âge. Mais les vieux qu’en fait-on?, questionne Frédéric Masson, de l’Académie française.

«Quoi ! Dans la tempête où se trouve lancé le vaisseau qui les porte, ils n’ont qu’à se croiser les bras, et comme les chœurs des tragédies antiques, à lancer des malédictions et des prières ? S’ils ne peuvent pas à soixante ans passés porter le sac et manier le fusil, fournir des étapes, monter sous le ciel des gardes de nuits, sont-ils à ce point cacochymes qu’ils ne soient bons à aucun travail de magasins, de bureaux, de surveillance ? N’est-il aucun poste où ils puissent remplacer quelques jeunes gens qui feraient les soldats ?»

Le Petit Parisien

Reportage à la gare du Nord. «En raison de l’énorme affluence, beaucoup de ces trains [pour les mobilisés] subirent des retards. Dans leur patriotique impatience, les jeunes voyageurs priaient les chefs de convois de ne pas les laisser se morfondre plus longtemps dans les wagons […]. A partir de six heures, des manifestations grandioses se succédèrent sans interruption, aux environs de ces mêmes gares, rappelant les débuts de l’épopée révolutionnaire, alors que, de même qu’aujourd’hui, la patrie était en danger.»

Confidentiel. «L’Allemagne a mobilisé à notre frontière» : «D’informations dignes de foi parvenues à Paris il résulte que l’état de “menace de guerre”, proclamé vendredi en Allemagne, a permis au gouvernement impérial de mobiliser en secret.»

Le Figaro

«Cette guerre, la France ne l’a pas voulue. […] Nos soldats partent et ils partent gaiement. Ils ont l’air de savoir où ils vont ; ils le savent. Rien n’était plus réconfortant que de parcourir les boulevards hier au soir. On y respirait je ne sais quelle atmosphère vibrante d’émotion et d’allégresse. C’est que ce peuple est fort non seulement de son enthousiasme mais aussi de son droit.[…] L’Allemagne se bat pour prendre la Champagne et la France pour reprendre l’Alsace-Lorraine. Et c’est parce qu’ils le savent bien qu’hier au soir nos petits soldats partaient en chantant pour la frontière.»

La Croix

«Il semble bien que tout est consommé et que la guerre est devenue inévitable», écrit le père Georges Bertoye, sous sa signature «Franc». «Le gouvernement cependant assure, et les hommes informés disent que nos troupes de couverture sont en état de recevoir le choc de l’adversaire. Les menées allemandes, sourdes et hypocrites, apparaissent aujourd’hui au grand jour. L’histoire y verra clair.»

L’écho d’Alger

«Hier soir, vers neuf heures, une des nombreuses manifestations spontanées qui ont pris naissance devant le square s’est formée en colonne serrée, après avoir applaudi les hymnes patriotiques que venait de jouer la musique, aux cris de : “Au consulat d’Allemagne, rue Michelet”, suivis de ceux de “A bas l’Allemagne !” entonnés en refrain continu sur l’air des “lampions”.»

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posted il y a 1 mois